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Subsidiary ledgers are used when there is a large amount of transaction information that would clutter up the general ledger. This situation typically arises in companies with significant sales volume. The accounts receivable subsidiary ledger shows all the sales made on credit by a business. It provides details on these sales by showing invoice dates and numbers, credit memorandums, payments made against the credit sales, discounts, and returns and allowances. The sum of all invoices in the accounts receivable subsidiary ledger should equal that of the accounts receivables on the general ledger, also known as the control account.

  1. Accounts receivable subsidiary ledger provides quick access to each customer’s balance and account activity.
  2. For explanation, we will take the help of all the accounts against which the Cash transactions took place.
  3. At the end of the accounting period, after the postings have been completed, a list is made of all the individual subsidiary accounts.
  4. The account number will be available in the book of account of XYZ company.
  5. The depreciation is recorded for each item in the Fixed Assets Subsidiary Ledger.

A subsidiary ledger contains the details to support a general ledger control account. For instance, the subsidiary ledger for accounts receivable contains the information for each of the company’s credit sales to customers, each customer’s remittance, return of merchandise, discounts, and so on. With these details in the subsidiary ledger, the Accounts Receivable account in the general ledger can report summary amounts for the accounts receivable activity.

Any special journal can require an entry to the subsidiary ledger if the entry involves accounts receivable or accounts payable. Another feature of the general ledger is that it records the transactions that take place in the subledger accounts. Thus, we also refer to the general ledger as the ‘set of master accounts’ since it contains all the information subsidiary ledger examples in the subledgers. When the goods arrive, someone down on the shipping/receiving dock counts the items and prepares a receipt that then goes to the accounting department. There should be a system in place to be able to match that receiving report with the original purchase order. The purchase order (and on the vendor side, the sales order) are memos only.

If you have any suggestions, ideas, or feedback, please feel free to comment below. A subsidiary ledger is an addition to an expansion of the general ledger. When the vendor receives a purchase order, it creates a sales order that goes to the shipping/fulfillment department.

4 Prepare a Subsidiary Ledger

Other subsidiary account ledgers include the accounts receivable subsidiary ledger, the inventory subsidiary ledger, and the equipment subsidiary ledger. The accounts receivable subsidiary ledger is essential to most businesses and is used to manage sales of goods and services to customers and entering receipts for the sales made. Main transactions are recording of sales invoices and managing the receipts from the customers. Different customers may be subject to different credit terms and an organization might need to track these terms to raise reminders or due date invoices.

What are the two purposes of sub ledger accounting?

Reconciling a subledger to a general ledger involves comparing balances, verifying transactions, making adjustments, and documenting the process to ensure accuracy and consistency in financial records. Bookkeeping is an important part of the accounting process since it records every transaction and reports all activities that impact a business’s financial performance. As an organization grows, it’s better to switch towards digital and automated accounting systems to streamline your workflows with minimized cost and real-time reporting. Both the general ledger and the subledger play an essential role in the world of accounting. Properly managing the ledger accounts is crucial to meeting financial reporting and regulatory obligations. It also helps build trust with your customers and other stakeholders.

Understanding an Accounts Receivable Subsidiary Ledger

A company needs to review its general ledger regularly to keep track of all the accounts that they currently handle. This is one of the most important practices that one needs to follow when handling a general ledger account. Not all vendor invoices will have purchase orders or receiving reports. For example, a company does not issue a purchase order to its electric utility for a pre-established amount of electricity for the following month.

The subsidiary ledger is a chart of specific accounts that are not included in the general ledger. The accounts in the subsidiary ledgers hold more specific information about the accounts that make up the general ledger. However, do not include the specific accounts in this ledger because it would result in tedious work.

What is the difference between a subsidiary ledger and a general ledger?

The same is true for the telephone, natural gas, sewer and water, freight-in, and so on. The total should be equal to the balance stated in the related general ledger account. If these totals are not equal, this indicates a posting or similar error. Postings to the general ledger accounts https://business-accounting.net/ are likewise indicated by noting the general ledger accounts in the Ref. column. For example, the general ledger account, Equipment, shows the historical cost of the total equipment owned by the firm. In this article, I have explained how to make subsidiary ledger in Excel.

If it is not up-to-date, the income statement for the accounting period will likely be omitting some expenses and the balance sheet at the end of the accounting period will be omitting some liabilities. Note that
each account used by the company has its own account section in the
general ledger. First, enter these transactions manually by creating the
relevant journals and subsidiary ledgers.

The general ledger consists of the summary of every transaction that took place in the accounts, whereas the general journal contains the original set of entries for low-volume transactions. For example, account receivable $4,000 and balances of individual accounts (A – $2,000 + C – $2,000) $4,000 as shown in the above example are equal. The schedule of accounts receivable for the customers in our example is shown next. For explanation, we will take the help of all the accounts against which the Cash transactions took place. For instance, in the first transaction, cash of 14,000 USD was invested in the company.

You will find the ledger for all other accounts in the worksheet for this article. In the similar manner shown above, you can make a ledger for other accounts too. For your convenience, I have given the ledger for Owner’s Equity here. So we must include all the corresponding dates in our ledger for the Cash account. The account number will be available in the book of account of XYZ company.

As an example, let’s say The Ford Motor Company has a general ledger balance that shows a total accounts payable balance of $106 million. However, management wants to see which suppliers are owed and the amounts owed. Postings to the subsidiary ledger accounts are indicated by noting the customer’s account number in the Ref. column. To maintain control, postings to subsidiary accounts should be made on a daily basis.

Similar posting procedures are followed for subsidiary Accounts Payable and any other subsidiary accounts that are maintained. (Figure)Evie Inc. has the following transactions during its first month of business. We would record the purchase of equipment for cash in the cash disbursements journal. In order to research accounting information when a subsidiary ledger is used, you need to drill down from the general ledger to the appropriate subsidiary ledger, where the detailed information is stored. These purposes enhance tracking, management, and reliable reporting in subledger accounting systems.

In addition to the general ledger control account, the term accounts payable can also refer to the person or staff that processes vendor invoices and pays the company’s bills. A subsidiary ledger can be set up for virtually any general ledger account. However, they are usually only created for areas in which there are high transaction volumes, which limits their use to a few areas. Examples of subsidiary ledgers are the accounts payable ledger, accounts receivable ledger, fixed assets ledger, inventory ledger, and purchases ledger. Some more examples of subsidiary ledgers are the accounts payable ledger, accounts receivable ledger, fixed assets ledger, inventory ledger, and purchases ledger. Accounts receivable account included in the general ledger above is a control account, i.e. a summary account that summaries accounts receivable subsidiary ledger.