A financial professional will offer guidance based on the information provided and offer a no-obligation call to better understand your situation. Yield to worst (YTW) is the lowest potential yield an investor could receive from a bond, considering all possible call dates and provisions. Finally, they can compute the BEY to obtain an annualized yield that is directly comparable to other bonds.

It allows them to compare the returns of bonds with different coupon rates, maturities, and purchase prices. This is especially useful for investors who are looking to diversify their portfolios and want to compare the returns of different bonds. A discounted bond is purchased by the investor at a lower price than the face value, but it is bought back at the face value. A zero coupon bond receives no interest on the bond, and all income is earned through buy-back of a discounted bond. The bond equivalent yield converts the income from a discounted bond into an annualized rate, which can be combined with the coupon rate to determine the total yield of the bond. The purpose of using Bond Equivalent Yield (BEY) is to provide investors with a standardized metric for comparing the yields of bonds with different payment frequencies, maturities, and coupon rates.

Yield to call simply refers to the bond’s yield at the time of its call date. This value doesn’t hold if the bond is kept until maturity, but only describes the value at the call date, which if given, can be found in the prospectus of the bond. This value is determined by the bond’s coupon rate, its market price and the length of the call date.

- Subtract purchase price from par value, then divide by the purchase price.
- There are three bond rating agencies in the United States that account for approximately 95% of all bond ratings and include Fitch Ratings, Standard & Poor’s Global Ratings, and Moody’s Investors Service.
- The Fool has a helpful section that will let you compare various brokers’ offerings and find one that’s right for you.
- Based on the rate of return, Bond D will have the highest yield, with a per-year yield of 50%, and Bond C has the lowest yield, at 5.7%.

The investors will lend the money to the bond issuer by buying the bond. The investors will then receive their returns by receiving coupons throughout the life of the bond as well as the face value when the bond matures. This article will help you understand what the bond equivalent yield is and how to calculate it using the bond equivalent yield formula. We will also demonstrate some calculation examples to help you understand the concept.

## Time to Maturity

In APR calculations, the interest rates received during the period are simply multiplied by the number of periods in a year. But the effect of compounding is not included with APR calculations—unlike APY, which takes the effects of compounding into account. It is more reasonable to think of a rate of return as the interest earned divided by the current price, not the face value. Since the T-bill is purchased at less than its face value, the denominator is overly high and the discount rate is understated. bond equivalent yield is especially useful when an investor has to decide between two or more fixed investment products with different maturities. The purchase price of the bond is, as the name indicates, the price the investor paid for acquiring the bond.

BEY is primarily used to calculate the value of such deep discount or zero-coupon bonds on an annualized basis. But there are some types of bonds that pay little or no interest at all to investors. Instead, these bonds are offered to investors at a very deep discount to their par value (face value). Those deep discount bonds that do not offer any interest at all are called zero-coupon bonds since their coupon payment is nil. Bonds and other such fixed-income securities offer periodic interest payments to investors. These interest payments otherwise referred to as coupon payments, provide a steady stream of income for bond investors.

These bonds are usually zero-coupon bonds that don’t pay interest. To know how much they’ll profit in an annualized context, investors use BEY. However, if the coupon payments were made every six months, the semi-annual YTM would be 5.979%.

This price will be lesser than the par value in the case of a deep discount or zero-coupon bond. The time to maturity affects a bond’s BEY, as bonds with longer maturities are typically more sensitive to interest rate changes. Consequently, the BEY of longer-maturity bonds may fluctuate more significantly compared to shorter-maturity bonds. Total returns can help compare the performance of investments that pay different dividend yields. If you’re enticed by the prospect of discount bonds, get familiar with BEY and use it to better-understand how they stack up against traditional fixed-income securities. Interest rates aren’t the only reason a bond might trade for a discount.

One way to take gain or loss into account is to divide it up across the remaining periods and then add or subtract it from the interest payment. Again, using the example above, with five years to go, the investor will receive 10 semi-annual payments, so dividing the $100 gain by 10 gives $10 in gain per payment. Add that to the $10 in interest, and you get $20, and that works out to a yield of 2.2%, or $20 divided by $900. Here’s a deeper look at bond equivalent yield, how to calculate it and when investors should use it when comparing investments. An inverted Treasury bond yield curve is one potential signal of a coming recession. Bond yields are typically graphed, with the y-axis displaying interest rates, and the x-axis displaying maturity lengths.

## Yield to Worst (YTW)

These include the YTM, bond equivalent yield (BEY), and effective annual yield (EAY). Furthermore, the BEY is also used by financial analysts to compare the yields of different bonds and to determine the current market value of a bond. By combining the coupon rate with the BEY, the bond yield results can be interpreted. The coupon rate and BEY are added together to find the total yield. The percentage in the total yield can be multiplied by the value of the bond to determine how much is earned from each bond each year. The bond equivalent is calculated using the face value, purchase price, and the number of days until maturity.

## Why Bond Equivalent Yield Matters

One limitation of BEY is the assumption that interest payments will be reinvested at the same rate as the BEY. In reality, interest rates may fluctuate, and reinvestment opportunities may not always be available at the same rate, which could impact an investor’s actual return. Municipal bonds, which are bonds issued by a state, municipality or county to finance its capital expenditures and are mostly non-taxable, also have a tax-equivalent yield (TEY). TEY is the pretax yield that a taxable bond needs to have for its yield to be the same as that of a tax-free municipal bond, and it is determined by the investor’s tax bracket. The slope of the yield curve gives an idea of future interest rate changes and economic activity. They may also look at the difference in interest rates between different categories of bonds, holding some characteristics constant.

In the previous example, the bonds’ cash flows were annual, so the YTM is equal to the BEY. If an investor purchases a bond with a face value of $1000 that matures in five years with a 10% annual coupon rate, the bond pays 10%, or $100, https://1investing.in/ in interest annually. If interest rates rise above 10%, the bond’s price will fall if the investor decides to sell it. The simplest way to calculate a bond yield is to divide its coupon payment by the face value of the bond.

Subtract purchase price from par value, then divide by the purchase price. Then, take that figure and multiply it by the number reached when dividing 365 by the days to maturity. Bond equivalent yield (BEY) is a way of valuing discount bonds to determine annual percentage yield. Comparing short-term discount bonds to traditional annual fixed-income securities is a bit like comparing apples to oranges. BEY makes it easier to compare apples to apples, using the same benchmarking tools. A bond’s yield is the return to an investor from the bond’s interest, or coupon, payments.